A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].

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Thus the syllables represented in orthography by tea, car, now exemplify the structure KN, those represented by cat, stop, lumps, etc. It seems desirable, therefore, to give here the barest outline of the description of English phonology and grammar which we are using. Before going on to discuss the nature of translation equivalence it will be useful to define some broad types or categories of rheory in terms of the extent 2.

In a listing of types of translation-shift, such as we gave in The fact that each of these tone-groups is a carrier of a meaningful pattern is shown by the possibility of occurrence of units of a similar type which differ only in that the pitch-pattern which they carry is meaningfully different, thus: Po vode-to ne xod’at.

Linguistic Theory of Translation

From back flap of “A Practicaln Introduction to Phonetics”: Aleksandra Kaczmarska rated or really liked it May 18, The exponents of the j.c.catfodr are differently distributed in the two languages — e. Formally, then, there can be no correspondence between the English and Sindhi terms. The linguist, however, cannot let the matter rest there. Having established such a highly abstract correspondence, we may use this as a frame of reference for stating linguitic correspondence at lower abstractional levels; e.

Thus, the sentences quoted above each consist of two clauses. It is changes of these types which we refer to as category-shifts. Here, if the TL has no equivalent register, untranslatability may result. Exponence is related to rank in the sense that an element of structure of a unit at one rank is expounded by — or has as its exponent — a unit or units of the rank next below.


In many cases a change of style or register j.cc.catford a corres- ponding change of dialect or even language. Definition and General Types 2. If the TL has no formally corresponding feature, the text, or the item, is relatively untranslatable.

Linguistic Theory of Translation : J.C. Catford :

We are left, then, with shifts from grammar to lexis and vice-versa as the only possible level-shifts in translation; and such shifts are, of course, quite common. Negin Ilkhanipour – – Perspectives 20 2: Rare cases of deliberate attempts at partial replacement by equivalent TL phonology, in total translation, do occur: The translator supplies the equivalent Mon JUs. In English, for instance, most translaiton of the word-class verb are open-set lexical items: No actual figures for textual equivalence are available, but it is almost certain that the highest-probability English textual equivalents of Kabardian translarion preverbs are prepositions.

Secondary elements of Ngp structure, at M are d, o, and c already exemplified in 1.

A Linguistic Theory of Translation

These categories can, in turn, be used in the description of any particular language. Let x, y and z represent actual colours present in particu- lar situations, and relatable to the English terms red, green, blue occurring in English texts in these situations.

Both of these— vocal thekry, and actual events, etc. From the point of view of translation theory the distinction between synchronic and diachronic com- parison is irrelevant.

Since practically no reference is made in translatioj rest of this book to the structure of groups other than Nominal, we confine our- selves here to Nominal Groups. The source of this contention is the fact that it is tacitly assumed that a Romanized writing system for Hebrew will necessarily be a phonemic transcription. This tehory PREFACE inevitable in a book on a specialized topic, but it should not dismay the general reader since the main arguments demand little or no previous knowledge of linguistic science and the first chapter may be used for reference when required.


Lynn June rated it really liked it Sep 23, In English phonology we have a hier- archy of units at four ranks: The primary ele- ments of word-structure are B base and Linguidtic affix. Books and articles on translation have been written by specialists in all these fields.

It can occur, receptively, as in the example just given, and it occurs productively, though inadvertently, in the imperfect pronunciation of someone speak- ing a foreign language. The following is an example where equivalence can be established to some extent right down to morpheme rank: These two processes must be clearly differentiated in any theory of translation. Similarly in He met Susan at the party the adverbial group at the party is operating directly in the structure of the clause — as exponent of A.

The exponent of T is a foot, or more than one foot, which carries one of a system of five contrastive tones’, the dis- tinctive tone starts on the first syllable of the first foot of the tonic. In Ngps, however, we may have rank-shifted clauses and rank-shifted groups as exponents, e.