paragraphe suivant Riemann écrit l’intégrale curviligne de manière plus .. La démonstration reprend la méthode proposée par Dirichlet dans ses cours, inédits . All of Bessel’s functions of the first kind and of integral orders occur in a paper . of H. Resal of the Polytechnic School in Paris, Cours d’ Astronomie de .. Sur les coordonnées curvilignes et leurs diverses applications; Sur la.

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Stokes remarked, however, that the ether might act like a fluid in case of curvilignr disturbances, and like an elastic solid in case of the infinitesimal disturbances in light propagation. Karl Pearsonprofessor in University College, London, has recently examined mathematically integrape permissible limits of the application of the ordinary theory of flexure of a beam.

It was at Heidelberg that he produced his work on Tonempfindung. Oberbeck showed that when the waves on the sea attain lengths of from 16 to 33 feet, the air waves must attain lengths of from 10 to 20 miles, and proportional depths.

Pour tracer un champ des tangentes, choisissez plotfield dans le sous-menu Graphique. Neumann, Clausius, Maxwell, and Helmholtz.

But the deepest insight into the wonderful correlations that exist among the varied motions of the atmosphere was integralf by William Ferrel — In he wrote an article on “the winds and currents of the ocean. Boussinesq of Paris, and curvilignd. A powerful method of attacking problems in fluid motion is that of images, introduced in by George Gabriel Stokes of Pembroke College, Cambridge.

Horace Lamb applied the theory of screws to the question of the steady motion of any solid in a fluid. He had made a reduction in the differential equations to the seventh order. A new epoch in the progress of hydrodynamics was created, inby Helmholtz, who worked out remarkable properties of rotational motion in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid, devoid of viscosity. Maxwell’s first deduction of this average from his law of distribution was not rigorous.

Poncelet advanced the theories of resilience and cohesion. John Couch Adams — of Cambridge divided with Le Verrier the inttegrale of jntegrale mathematical discovery of Neptune, and pointed out in that Laplace’s explanation of the secular acceleration of the moon’s mean motion accounted for only half the observed acceleration.

Gibbs formulated the energy-entropy criterion of equilibrium and stability, and expressed it in a form applicable to complicated problems of dissociation. Green was a self-educated man who started out as a baker, and at his death was fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. If the earth is a solid, then its elasticity co-operates with gravity in opposing deformation due to the attraction of the sun and moon.


Set was investigated by Gerstner — and Eaton Hodgkinson, while the latter physicist in England and Vicat — in France experimented extensively on absolute strength. Retrieved from ” https: Thomas Young [95] — was the first to explain the principle of interference, jntegrale of light and sound, and the first to bring forward the idea of transverse vibrations in light waves.

Airy, in his treatise on Tides and Wavesdiscarded mere approximations, and gave the exact equation on which the theory of the long wave in a channel of uniform rectangular section depends. Espyfollowed by researches of W. Viscous fluids present great difficulties, because the equations of motion have not the same degree of certainty as in perfect fluids, on account of a deficient theory of friction, and of the difficulty of connecting oblique pressures on a small area with the differentials of the velocities.

On the latter assumption the direction of vibration crviligne in the plane of polarisation, and not perpendicular to it, as in the theory of Fresnel.

A History of Mathematics/Recent Times/Applied Mathematics

By these labours, the motion of a single solid in a fluid has come to be pretty well understood, but the case of two solids in a fluid is not developed so fully. Epoch-making were Helmholtz’s experimental and mathematical researches. Redfieldand James P. The latter designated the non-transformable energy by the name entropyand then stated that the entropy of the universe tends toward a maximum. A sound derivation was given by O.

Other important experiments were made by different scientists, which disclosed a wider range of phenomena, and demanded a more comprehensive theory. These researches have since been greatly extended by him.

Arago was the first great convert made by Fresnel. Pour une courbe en polaires, on peut utiliser les complexes, par exemple r: Notwithstanding the beautiful developments of intetrale mechanics reached by Laplace at the close of the eighteenth century, there was made a discovery on the first day of the present century which presented a problem seemingly beyond the power of that analysis.

His experiments favoured the British theory. Most of Heaviside’s papers have been published since ; they cover a wide field. This work cour remarkable not only as being the earliest introduction to synthetic mechanics, but also as containing for the first time the idea of couples, which was applied by Poinsot in a publication of to the theory of rotation.


Lord Rayleigh compared electro-magnetic problems with their mechanical analogues, gave a dynamical theory of diffraction, and applied Laplace’s coefficients to the theory of radiation. Particular mention may be made of his discussion of the disturbance produced by a spherical obstacle on the waves of cojrs, and of phenomena, such as sensitive flames, connected with the instability of jets of fluid. The mechanism of these rings was investigated by James Clerk Maxwell in an essay to which the Adams prize was awarded.

He wrote on abnormal dispersion, and created analogies between electro-dynamics and hydrodynamics. His cirviligne on the theory of potential are epoch-making.

Chief among recent workers on the mathematical theory of capillarity are Lord Rayleigh and E. Helmholtz gave the mathematical theory of beats, integrqle tones, and summation tones.

A History of Mathematics/Recent Times/Applied Mathematics – Wikisource, the free online library

Hoping some day to become a supercargo on trading expeditions, he became interested in observations at sea. Maxwell proposed to himself the problem to determine the average number of molecules, the velocities of which lie between given limits. Neumann, Riemann, and Clausius, who had attempted to explain electrodynamic phenomena by the assumption of forces acting at a distance between two portions of the hypothetical electrical fluid,—the intensity being dependent not only on the distance, but also on the velocity and acceleration,—and the theory of Faraday and Maxwell, which discarded action at a distance and assumed stresses and strains in the dielectric.

He wrote on the mathematical theory of heat, capillary action, probability of judgment, the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism, physical astronomy, the attraction of ellipsoids, definite integrals, series, and the theory of elasticity.

OppolzerMathematische Theorien der Planetenbewegung by O. He deserves much credit for his derivation and transformation of the general elastic equations, and for his application of them to double refraction.

He proposed the electro-magnetic theory, which has received extensive development recently.