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En una mentalidad en donde lo humano y lo sobrehumano siempre han convivido de manera inseparable, el hecho de comprender, de reinterpretar y de compenetrar esta nueva realidad espiritual era de fundamental importancia para la supervivencia. Olmedioperebea sclerophyllaa jungle tree, the fruits of which reputedly were the source of an intoxicating snuff employed formerly by Indians of the Pariana region of the central part of the Amazon Valley.

Although the evidence is wholly circumstantial and often rather weak at that, several species or varieties of Anadenanthera may actually be involved in the numerous isolated localities in central and southern South America where snuff was employed amongst the Indians.

At the turn of the present century, there was a flurry of pharmacological interest in Myristica fragransbut it subsided until the recent rash of use of nutmeg as an intoxicant again focussed attention on the need for a thorough understanding of the constituents, effects and dangers of this potential ” new ” hallucinogen. As examples, we might cite de la Condamine’s observation in the early eighteenth century of an hallucinogenic snuff known as curupa amongst the Omaguas of Amazonian Peru and a modern statement that the Tikunas of the upper Amazon both used a snuff made from Anadenanthera peregrina: Recent studies have shown the importance and widespread employment of intoxicating snuffs made from Virola -bark.

This I believe to be true. Safrole and elemicine have also been suggested as active agents in nutmeg seed, although no tests on the psychopharmacological effects of these two constituents have been conducted on which to base such a suggestion. It is obvious that extensive research must be done on South American hallucinogenic snuffs in general and on the use of Anadenanthera in particular before anything approaching a clear understanding of the total picture can be expected.

The indigenous and the Spanish spirituality identify to each other in a new language of a new social reality. Huaresa genus of some 15 species in the warmer parts mainly of tropical Asia and Africa, possesses powerfully toxic principles, including alkaloids.


As a consequence of the comparatively restricted distribution of Anadenanthera peregrina huzrpes, the use of a yuarpes prepared from its beans obviously must be much more restricted than the literature would indicate.

However, a fact of singular importance can be noted. Genista canariensis There is evidence that natives of the New World have found psychotropic activity in plants introduced from the Old World.

This interesting narcotic plant has never been definitively identified. Sophora secundiflora A shrub native to the dry limestone areas of the American Southwest and adjacent Mexico, Sophora secundiflora produces dark red seeds known as mescal beans, red beans or coral beans.

There is a persistent rumour that the hallucinogenic effects of nutmeg are employed by natives in parts of southeast Asia, but little supporting evidence has been found. idnios

Lengua Huarpe. Diccionario Allentiac – Español

Racconti aztechi della ConquistaEinaudi. Botanists now widely agree that Cannabis is a monotypic genus, a genus with one polymorphic species: His reports were first published in in Martyr’s compilations about the New World.

A number of other missionary reports from the Orinoco area of Colombia and Venezuela guarpes the details offered by Gumilla. Next, he snuff, s, whilst, with the same reed, he absorbs the powder into each nostril successively.

Like Gumilla, von Humboldt felt that the biodynamic activity of the snuff was attributable to the lime admixture: The same Saint invoked by Spanish people during the conquest battles turns into a protector and defender for natives.

No chemical study of this plant nor of the snuff have been published, and direct observations of the preparation and use of the snuff have been impossible to date. The hard, grey outer bark is chopped into small pieces and set in a glowing fire, then removed and allowed slowly to reduce to ashes.

Tree indio Anadenanthera peregrina in the campos outside of Boa Vista, Brazil; photograph: The effects of Virola intoxication vary, but amongst the Indians, they usually include initial excitability – setting in within several minutes from the first indiks ing – numbness of the limbs, twitching of the facial muscles, inability to co-ordinate yuarpes activity, nausea, visual hallucinations and, finally, a deep, disturbed sleep.

The plant kingdom and hallucinogens (part II)

The centre of the use of Anadenanthera -snuff is, and probably always has been, the Orinoco basin, where it is widely known as yopo. This rank, weedy annual that commonly grows to a height of 15 feet is native probably to Central Asia but has escaped from cultivation in many parts of the world and grows spontaneously. Recent literature and maps showing the distribution of snuffs made presumably from Anadenanthera include the entire Orinoco basin and adjacent areas of southern Venezuela to the east; westward across the northern Colombian Andes, much of the Magdalena Valley; down the Andes through Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia; the coastal region of Peru; scattered isolated areas in northern Argentina and the central and western Amazon Valley.


Charles Darwin was impressed with this aggressive weed. When the ashes are added in equal amounts to the Virola-Justicia powder, the resulting snuff, ready for use, is rather greyish and extremely fine. Apparently several species of Mimosa are generically referred to as jurema in northeastern Brazil.

These natives strip the bark from jungle trees early in the morning and scrape off the soft inner bark, with its resinous exudation. This resin is concentrated in the inflorescences and leaves, especially those near the flowering tops, and appears to be most abundant in the recently fertilized ovary and unripened fruit.

Other tribes of the central and northwestern American Plains groups valued the bean as a medicine or fetish but failed, apparently, to develop a definite cult surrounding its use. The crown is invios with its dark green, acacia-like foliage. They have been found in archaeological sites, all dated before 1, A. When the bulb is rubbed on an incision made on the head of a tribesman, visual hallucinations are said to be induced. Selection for increased narcotic activity has been especially notable in certain regions – in India, for example – where the inebriating properties had religious indois magical significance or were otherwise valued.

Occasionally, powdered Justicia leaves huarped be added ” to make the snuff smell better “, but Holmstedt and I ascertained, from self-intoxication, that the Virola resin alone is highly intoxicating. The rhizome, mixed with oils, is employed in the Philippines as a cicatrizant and applied to boils and furuncles to bring them to a head. It must be indils that this problem has arisen because of a confusion of concepts: