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The heat loss would be at the same rate, and with less heat input the frozen layer would grow in thickness.

After emptying the barrel of an injectionmolding machine, a small amount of red plastic was charged, followed by green plastic. On the other hand, when an elastic solid.

Molten thermoplastics exhibit viscoelastic behavior, which combines flow characteristics of both viscous liquids and elastic solids. A Resource for Plastics Engineers. Two parts having identical dimensions and made apostilx the same material but molded under different conditions will have different stress and shrinkage levels and will behave differently in the field, meaning that they are apostilz practice two different parts.

When the mold is filled, the ram will slow down, but it still moves quite some distance because plastics are very compressible materials. Phases of Injection Molding5 at the outer edge where the plastic is frozen, rises to a maximum just inwards of the frozen layer, then drops toward the center, as shown in Figure1. You would think that plastic flowing uniformly through the thin diaphragm would top up the thick rim.

On the other hand, if the material were kept under stress and the plastic snap frozen, most of the orientation would be trapped in the frozen plastic Figure1. The pressurization phase begins when the ram moves forward after the filling phase to bring the mold up to pressure. The flow of molten thermoplastics during injection-molding filling is predominantly shear flow, as shown in Figure1.


In practice, the plastic during the compensation phase flows in rivers that spread out like a delta, as illustrated in Figure1. Initially, the frozen layer is very thin, so heat is lost very rapidly.

When a viscous liquid flows, the energy that causes the deformation is dissipated and becomes viscous heat. There is always some variation in melt temperature coming from the barrel of the injection machine. Moldflow Design Guide Luis row Enviado por: After a time, the frozen layer will reach a thickness such that the heat lost by conduction is equal to the heat input from plastic flow and frictional heating, i.

By controlling flow and minimizing stress, it is possible to design for optimum part quality. The rivers will shrink relative to the bulk of the molding, and because they are highly orientated, shrinkage will be very high.

The frozen layer is formed by the flow front inflating, and so is subject to only a low shear stress and, therefore, has a very low level of molecular orientation. At the same time, heat is being lost through the frozen layer to the cold mold surface. This important point is at the heart of the Moldflow philosophy.

Now, consider what happens upstream. Any molder can prove that all the conditions and effects discussed in this chapter do indeed occur during the injection molding process. As the total filling time is measured in seconds, the frozen layer reaches an equilibrium state early in the filling cycle.

As the plastic flows it is subject to shear stress, also called flow shear stress. The first material to freeze off will shrink early in the cycle. molfflow


Moldflow Design Guide

It was found that the injection molding process, although complex, could be divided into three phases we use the word phase to avoid confusion with injection stage, as used with apistila injection. The result is that equilibrium is reached very quickly, often in a time measured in a few tenths of a second.

The ram moving forward to compensate for the volumetric change in the part is called the compensation phase. For example, the flow of water is a typical viscous flow, whereas the deformation of a rubber cube falls into the elastic category. This is a very important consideration. This means shear stress during filling, shown on Moldflow plots, can be used as a design parameter.

The highly oriented layer ends up being in tension, while the less-oriented material is in compression. This is the filling phase. By the time the material in the river flows freezes, the bulk of the material will have already frozen off and shrinkage will have occurred.

The way the plastic flows into the mold is of paramount importance in determining the quality of the part.

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When more material enters the mold, it flows along a channel lined with these frozen walls of plastic, illustrated in Figure1. The flow rate may drop somewhat as the mold builds up to pressure, resulting in an increase in the thickness of the frozen layer. If the injection rate were raised, the frozen layer would be thinner Mmoldflow.

Consider how this pattern will affect the residual stress level.